A critical evaluation of nano pesticides and nano fertilizers against their conventional analogues”

Qudrat Ullah, Aneeza Ishfaq, Muhammad Qasim

Department of Environmental Sciences

Government College University Faisalabad


The use of nanotechnology in the production of agrochemicals, notably nanopesticides and nanofertilizers, has garnered interest in recent years due to their potential to boost crop output while lowering environmental effect compared to traditional counterparts. The effectiveness and safety of these nanoproducts in comparison to their traditional equivalents, however, need to be critically assessed. This study looks at the present level of knowledge about the application of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers in agriculture, as well as any prospective advantages and disadvantages. Increased effectiveness, less environmental impact, and improved plant development are some of the possible advantages of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. Yet, questions have been raised regarding their possible toxicity and long-term impacts on ecosystems and soil health. The lack of information on these nanoproducts’ behaviour and environmental destiny further emphasises the need for more research. In conclusion, although nanopesticides and nanofertilizers have the potential to transform agriculture, their usage has to be carefully assessed and regulated to assure their safety and efficacy in comparison to traditional equivalents.


Agriculture is the backbone of many economies worldwide. Yet, it has various obstacles, including limited arable land, pests, and diseases that jeopardize agricultural productivity. In order to promote crop growth and safeguard them against pests and diseases, this resulted in the development of pesticides and fertilizers. However, there are worries about the effects of conventional pesticides and fertilizers on the environment and public health. This has led to the creation of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers, which are considered to offer various benefits over their traditional equivalents (Forbes, Cohen, Cullen, Wratten, & Fountain, 2009; Jacobsen, Sørensen, Pedersen, & Weiner, 2013; Workie, Mackolil, Nyika, & Ramadas, 2020).

 In comparison to their traditional equivalents, nanopesticides and nanofertilizers are evaluated severely in this blog.

What are nanopesticides and nanofertilizers?

Nanopesticides and nanofertilizers are pesticides and fertilizers that improve their performance by utilizing nanotechnology. The manipulation of materials at the nanoscale, which is typically between 1 and 100 nanometers, is the focus of nanotechnology. Nanopesticides and nanofertilizers are made up of nanoparticles that have unique properties that enhance their performance. For instance, Due to their large surface area to volume ratio, nanoparticles are more effective (Chhipa & Joshi, 2016; Farokhzad & Langer, 2009; Kah, Kookana, Gogos, & Bucheli, 2018; zulfiqar, Navarro, Ashraf, Akram, & Munné-Bosch, 2019).

Benefits of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers:

The fact that nanopesticides and nanofertilizers are more effective than their conventional analogues is one of their advantages. They can interact with the target species more effectively since they have a high surface area to volume ratio. Furthermore, nanopesticides and nanofertilizers have a slow-release mechanism that makes sure the active ingredients are released gradually over time, enhancing their effectiveness (Dangi & Verma, 2021; Demir, 2020; Kalia, Sharma, Kaur, & Kaur, 2020; R. Manjunatha, Naik, & Usharani, 2019; S. Manjunatha, Biradar, & Aladakatti, 2016; Okey‐Onyesolu et al., 2021).

Another advantage of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers is that they are less toxic compared to conventional pesticides and fertilizers. This is due to the fact that they need fewer active substances to provide the intended result. Additionally, nanopesticides and nanofertilizers have a targeted release mechanism, which ensures that the active ingredients are only released when they come into contact with the target organisms, thus reducing the risk of toxicity to non-target organisms (Iavicoli, Leso, Beezhold, & Shvedova, 2017; Kah et al., 2018; Sharma, Lakra, Sharma, & Sharma, 2022).

Criticism of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers:

Despite the potential advantages of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers, there are worries about how they may affect the environment and people’s health. The fact that nanopesticides and nanofertilizers have unknown long-term impacts is one of the worries. This is because the effects of nanoparticles on the environment and human health have not been well studied (Sarkar, Chaudhary, & Kaushik, 2021).

Another criticism of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers is that they may have unintended consequences. For instance, nanoparticles may accumulate in the soil, thus affecting soil health and microbial activity. Furthermore, nanoparticles may leach into bodies of water, polluting them and affecting aquatic organisms (Elemike, Uzoh, Onwudiwe, & Babalola, 2019; Pulit-Prociak, Stokłosa, & Banach, 2015).

Additionally, there are worries concerning the regulation of nanopesticides and nanofertilizers. There are currently no specific regulations governing nanopesticides and nanofertilizers, raising concerns about their safety and efficacy (Sonaje et al., 2009).


In summary, using nanopesticides and nanofertilizers has demonstrated encouraging results in increasing agricultural output while limiting the detrimental environmental effects associated with conventional equivalents. Nonetheless, it is important to consider any potential dangers to human health and the environment, and more research is required to determine their long-term impacts. Nevertheless, it is still difficult to produce and use these nano-based goods on a big scale in an efficient and scalable manner. Particularly in developing nations where access to these technologies may be constrained, it is critical to take into account any potential ethical consequences of using nanotechnology into agriculture. While using nanopesticides and nanofertilizers presents an effective substitute for traditional pesticides and fertilisers, it is critical to weigh their potential advantages against the requirement for ethical and sustainable agricultural practises. Before nanotechnology is widely used in agriculture, further investigation and cautious thought are required.


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